Where does eotaxin come from?
In addition to being expressed by structural cells (e.g., epithelial cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth-muscle cells, and chondrocytes), eotaxin is also produced by infiltrative inflammatory cells. For example, in the healthy respiratory tract, eotaxin is predominantly produced by epithelial cells (33).
Is eotaxin a cytokine?
We demonstrate that human eotaxin is an early response gene of cytokine–stimulated epithelial and endothelial cells, and is induced in peripheral blood eosinophils by interleukin–3. Eotaxin is directly chemotactic for eosinophils, but not mononuclear cells or neutrophils.
What is the function of eosinophil?
Many diverse functions Eosinophilic functions include: movement to inflamed areas, trapping substances, killing cells, anti-parasitic and bactericidal activity, participating in immediate allergic reactions, and modulating inflammatory responses.
What is the function of Eotaxin?
CCL11/Eotaxin is an important eosinophil-specific chemokine that is associated with the recruitment of eosinophils into sites of inflammation. It is generated in the lungs of asthmatic patients and has a role in targeting eosinophils at inflammatory foci.
Is IL 6 a proinflammatory?
IL-6 exhibits two contrasting features. In models of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as collagen-induced arthritis, murine colitis, or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, IL-6 is proinflammatory [28,29], whereas in models of acute inflammation IL-6 exhibits an anti-inflammatory profile .
What is the meaning of eosinophil?
(EE-oh-SIH-noh-FIL) A type of immune cell that has granules (small particles) with enzymes that are released during infections, allergic reactions, and asthma. An eosinophil is a type of white blood cell and a type of granulocyte. Enlarge. Blood cells.
What produces il10?
In vivo, major sources of IL-10 include T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, however myriad immune effector cell types are capable of producing IL-10 in certain contexts including B cells, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, mast cells, and granulocytes like neutrophils and eosinophils.
Where is eotaxin produced in the human body?
Eotaxin is produced by IFNγ-stimulated endothelial cells, complement-activated eosinophils, TNF-activated monocytes and dermal fibroblasts and in response to IL-4 stimulation in vivo. Eotaxin mRNA is constitutively expressed in small intestine, colon, lung and heart1–4, 8, 9.
What kind of activity does eotaxin-3 have?
Eotaxin-3 (CCL26) belongs to the group of CC chemokines that attract eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes. Like eotaxin (CCL11) and eotaxin-2 (CCL24), eotaxin-3 mediates its activity through CCR3.
How many cysteines are in a human eotaxin?
Structural Information. Human eotaxin (Eot) is an 8.4 kDa, 74 amino acid (aa) residue polypeptide that is produced by a number of normal cells and cell lines. 3, 4 Molecules in this group are characterized by the presence of four cysteines, the first two of which are immediately adjacent.
How is eotaxin related to myeloid progenitor cells?
Eotaxin also promotes the generation of mast cell and myeloid progenitor cells10. Mouse and human eotaxin share 59% amino acid sequence homology. Eotaxin is 66% homologous to MCP-1 but shares none of its biological activities.