## What is dean force?

Among the lateral forces, the Dean force (FD) dominates, influencing particles to flow in the direction of the vortices flow. This means particles at the top and bottom move laterally towards the inner wall, while particles closer to the mid-plane are pushed towards the outer wall.

**What does the Dean number represent?**

A dimensionless number giving the ratio of the viscous force acting on a fluid flowing in a curved pipe to the centrifugal force; equal to the Reynolds number times the square root of the ratio of the radius of the pipe to its radius of curvature. Symbolized ND.

**How is Dean calculated?**

The Dean Equations For an axial flow driven by a pressure gradient G, the axial velocity uz is scaled with U = Ga2 / μ. The cross-stream velocities ux,uy are scaled with (a / R)1 / 2U, and cross-stream pressures with ρaU2 / L. Lengths are scaled with the tube radius a. is the convective derivative.

### What causes Dean vortices?

If a fluid is moving along a straight pipe that after some point becomes curved, the centripetal forces at the bend will cause the fluid particles to change their main direction of motion. This secondary motion is expected to appear as a pair of counter-rotating cells, which are called Dean vortices.

**How do you calculate Fanning friction factor?**

- Copyright PipeFlow.co.uk.
- Fanning Friction Factor.
- The frictional head loss in pipes with full flow may be calculated by using the following formula and an appropriate Fanning friction factor. hf = f f (L/Rh) x (v.
- /2g)
- where: hf = head loss (m)
- f f = Fanning friction factor.
- L = length of pipe work (m)

**What is roughness factor?**

‘Relative Roughness’ or ‘Roughness factor’ of a pipe is the ratio of absolute roughness to the pipe diameter. Relative roughness factor is often used for pressure drop calculations for pipes and other equipment. Absolute Pipe Roughness is usually defined for a material and can be measured experimentally.

## What is pipe roughness and friction factor?

The friction factor f at a given Reynolds number, in the turbulent region, depends on the relative roughness, defined as the ratio of average roughness to the diameter of the pipe, rather than the absolute roughness. The position and extent of all these zones depend on the relative roughness of the pipe.

**What is roughness formula?**

Ra is calculated as the Roughness Average of a surfaces measured microscopic peaks and valleys. RMS is calculated as the Root Mean Square of a surfaces measured microscopic peaks and valleys. The electropolishing process may improve a surface finish by up to 50%.

**How do you calculate roughness factor?**

The relative roughness of a pipe is its roughness divided by its internal diameter or e/D, and this value is used in the calculation of the pipe friction factor, which is then used in the Darcy-Weisbach equation to calculate the friction loss in a pipe for a flowing fluid.

### What does Ra finish mean?

Ra is the arithmetic average of surface heights measured across a surface, Ra surface finish. Simply average the height across the microscopic peaks and valleys. It basically reflects the average height of roughness component irregularities from a mean line.

**What is the roughness of steel?**

Surface | Absolute Roughness Coefficient – k – | |
---|---|---|

(10-3 m) | (feet) | |

Stainless steel, electron-polished | 0.0001 – 0.0008 | (0.000328 – 0.00262) 10-3 |

Commercial steel or wrought iron | 0.045 – 0.09 | (1.48 – 2.95) 10-4 |

Stretched steel | 0.015 | 4.95 10-5 |

**What happens when the number of Deans increases?**

As the Dean number increases between 40~60 to 64~75, some wavy perturbations can be observed in the cross-section, which evidences some secondary flow. At higher Dean numbers than that (De > 64~75) the pair of Dean vortices becomes stable, indicating a primary dynamic instability.

## Which is the only parameter left in the Dean equation?

The Dean number D is the only parameter left in the system, and encapsulates the leading order curvature effects. Higher-order approximations will involve additional parameters. For weak curvature effects (small D ), the Dean equations can be solved as a series expansion in D.

**Is the flow of the Dean number unidirectional?**

The flow is completely unidirectional for low Dean numbers (De < 40~60). As the Dean number increases between 40~60 to 64~75, some wavy perturbations can be observed in the cross-section, which evidences some secondary flow.

**When does secondary instability appear in Dean number?**

A secondary instability appears for De > 75~200, where the vortices present undulations, twisting, and eventually merging and pair splitting. Fully turbulent flow forms for De > 400.