Where is Oligodendrocyte found?
central nervous system
Oligodendrocyte, a type of neuroglia found in the central nervous system of invertebrates and vertebrates that functions to produce myelin, an insulating sheath on the axons of nerve fibres.
What is the function and location of oligodendrocytes?
Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS). They are the end product of a cell lineage which has to undergo a complex and precisely timed program of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and myelination to finally produce the insulating sheath of axons.
Are oligodendrocytes found in gray matter?
Oligodendrocytes and OPCs in the Normal CNS ‘ Like other glia, oligodendrocytes are found throughout the CNS gray and white matter, where individual oligodendrocytes can myelinate as many as 40–50 axons. This important function enables rapid saltatory conduction throughout the CNS.
What is the size of oligodendrocyte?
Most oligodendrocytes generate between 20 and 60 myelinating processes with intermodal lengths of ∼20 µm–200 µm and up to 100 membrane turns (Matthews and Duncan 1971; Hildebrand et al.
What is Oligodendrogenesis?
Oligodendrogenesis is a process that is regulated by extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The main external stimuli are morphogens, growth factors and extracellular matrix elements, while the internal stimuli important for oligodendrocyte formation are transcription factors and epigenetic regulators.
Where are Neurolemmocytes found?
a type of cell occurring in the region of the nerve fibres of the peripheral nervous system of vertebrates. It produces the neurilemma which encloses the MYELIN SHEATH (see Fig. 226 ), and is found in close contact with the nerve axons between each node of Ranvier.
How many axons can one oligodendrocyte Myelinate?
A single oligodendrocyte can extend its processes to 50 axons, wrapping approximately 1 μm of myelin sheath around each axon; Schwann cells, on the other hand, can wrap around only one axon. Each oligodendrocyte forms one segment of myelin for several adjacent axons.
What cells make up gray matter?
The central nervous system is made up of two types of tissue: the grey matter and the white matter. The grey matter is mainly composed of neuronal cell bodies and unmyelinated axons. Axons are the processes that extend from neuronal cell bodies, carrying signals between those bodies.
What is a microglia?
Definition. Microglial cells are a specialised population of macrophages that are found in the central nervous system (CNS). They remove damaged neurons and infections and are important for maintaining the health of the CNS.
What is an astrocyte?
Astrocytes are specialized glial cells that outnumber neurons by over fivefold. They contiguously tile the entire central nervous system (CNS) and exert many essential complex functions in the healthy CNS. A vast molecular arsenal at the disposal of reactive astrocytes is being defined.
What kind of cell performs the main?
Nervous tissue is composed of two types of cells, neurons and glial cells. Neurons are the primary type of cell that most anyone associates with the nervous system. They are responsible for the sensory, integrative, and motor functions of the nervous system.
Where is a synaptic knob?
Synaptic knobs are located on a neuron’s axon. The axon can be very long and have many synaptic knobs.
Where is the oligodendrocyte found in the nervous system?
Written By: Oligodendrocyte, a type of neuroglia found in the central nervous system of invertebrates and vertebrates that functions to produce myelin, an insulating sheath on the axons of nerve fibres.
How big is an oligodendrocyte progenitor cell ( OPC )?
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are a subtype of glial cells in the central nervous system, characterized by expression of the proteoglycans PDGFRA, and CSPG4. OPCs are smaller than neurons, of comparable size to other glia, and can either have a bipolar or complex multipolar morphology with processes reaching up to ~50 μm.
How are oligodendrocytes used in the trophic system?
Oligodendrocytes interact closely with nerve cells and provide trophic support by the production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). They may also directly provide metabolites to neurons, as described by the lactate shuttle hypothesis.
What happens to oligodendrocytes when OLIG2 is deleted?
When the oligodendrocyte transcription factor Olig2 is deleted specifically in polydendrocytes, there is a region- and age-dependent switch in the fate of polydendrocytes from oligodendrocytes to astrocytes.