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What does alexandrium Fundyense come from?

What does alexandrium Fundyense come from?

Alexandrium fundyense is a photosynthetic marine dinoflagellate that lives in the upper water column (photic-zone) of coastal waters (2). It is a part of the Thecate group or “armored dinoflagellates” meaning it has thecal plates made of cellulose surrounding the cell like armor (Figures 1 and 2) (2).

How does Alexandrium catenella move?

Alexandrium catenella is a species of dinoflagellates. Alexandrium has two flagella that enable it to swim. While one flagellum encircles the cell causing the cell the rotate and move forward, the other extends behind the cell and controls the direction.

What does Alexandrium catenella do for the environment?

Alexandrium tamarense is noted for its ability to adapt to changes in the amount of nitrogen in its environment. Some species of Alexandrium are colonial organisms. For example, Alexandrium catenella is a catenate (chain-forming) organism. Alexandrium produce paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PST).

Where does alexandrium Tamarense live?

Geographic: Alexandrium tamarense is mostly found in coastal cold temperate waters of North America, Europe and Japan (Smithsonian 2011). It is broadly distributed in the North Atlantic and southern North Sea (Kraberg et al. 2010).

Where do alexandrium Catenella come from?

Alexandrium catenella is a species of dinoflagellates. It is among the group of Alexandrium species that produce toxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning, and is a cause of red tide. These organisms have been found in the west coast of North America, Japan, Australia, and parts of South Africa.

Where does Karenia brevis come from?

Florida red tides are annual blooms of the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico. The organism produces a group of highly potent natural neurotoxins called brevetoxins.

What do alexandrium Catenella eat?

The toxin is produced by dinoflagellates such as Protogonyaulax sp., Gymnodium catenatum, Alexandrium catenella and Alexandrium minutum. Mussels, clams and oysters feed on these dinoflagellates or red algae with which they may be associated and thus become toxic.

What is the shape of Alexandrium Catenella?

Spherical
Alexandrium catenella

Classification
Shape Spherical
Size Length 20 – 48 μm, width 18 – 34 μm
Colour Yellow-green to orange-brown
Connection Forms chains of 2, 4 or 8 cells

How does saxitoxin affect the nervous system?

Saxitoxin is a neurotoxin that acts as a selective, reversible, voltage-gated sodium channel blocker. One of the most potent known natural toxins, it acts on the voltage-gated sodium channels of neurons, preventing normal cellular function and leading to paralysis.

Where is alexandrium Fundyense found?

Alexandrium fundyense – found along the Atlantic coast from the Canadian Maritimes to southern New England.

Is Karenia brevis harmful to humans?

Health Risks for Humans The brevotoxins produced by K. brevis are harmful to humans. Humans can be exposed to the toxins by ingestion and inhalation. When brevotoxin-contaminated shellfish are consumed, a disease called the Neurological Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) is developed onto the consumer.

What is the binomial name for Alexandrium catenella?

Binomial name. Alexandrium catenella. Alexandrium catenella is a species of dinoflagellates. It is among the group of Alexandrium species that produce toxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning, and is a cause of red tide.

What kind of poison does Alexandrium catenella produce?

Alexandrium catenella. Alexandrium catenella is a species of dinoflagellates. It is among the group of Alexandrium species that produce toxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning, and is a cause of red tide.

Is the Alexandrium catenella A cause of red tide?

Alexandrium catenella is a species of dinoflagellates. It is among the group of Alexandrium species that produce toxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning, and is a cause of red tide.

What are the optimal growth conditions for Alexandrium catenella?

The optimal growth conditions for A. catenella include a cool temperature of around 17 to 23 °C, a medium to light illumination of 3500 to 4000 lux, and a high salinity of around 26 to 32 percent. ^ “Alexandrium catenella”. Olympic Region harmful algal bloom. Archived from the original on 12 March 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2013.