What is the most common cause of antepartum hemorrhage?

What is the most common cause of antepartum hemorrhage?

Antepartum haemorrhage (APH) is defined as bleeding from or in to the genital tract, occurring from 24+0 weeks of pregnancy and prior to the birth of the baby. The most important causes of APH are placenta praevia and placental abruption, although these are not the most common.

What are the signs and symptoms of APH?

(b) In APH due to placental abruption symptoms include:

  • Vaginal bleeding.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Back pain.
  • Uterine tenderness.
  • Uterine contractions,
  • Firmness in the uterus or abdomen.

What is the complication of APH?

Maternal complications of APH are malpresentation, premature labour, postpartum hemorrhage, shock, retained placenta. They also include higher rates of caesarian section, peripartum hysterectomy, coagulation failure, puerperal infections and even death.

What is the management of antepartum haemorrhage?

However, surgery for the treatment of PPH is usually emergent and cannot wait for several hours. Elective: Surgery for treatment of APH can be elective for cases of placenta previa or vasa previa with minimal pre-delivery bleeding and no evidence of fetal stress. Surgery for treatment of PPH is not elective.

How does antepartum hemorrhage cause death?

This rare cause of antepartum haemorrhage occurs when the vessels of the umbilical cord cross the membranes near to the internal os. When the membranes rupture, a small amount of continuous bright red bleeding occurs. The blood is from the fetal circulation and, therefore, the fetus can bleed to death.

How do you manage placental abruption?

You might be given medication to help your baby’s lungs mature and to protect the baby’s brain, in case early delivery becomes necessary. The baby is close to full term. Generally after 34 weeks of pregnancy, if the placental abruption seems minimal, a closely monitored vaginal delivery might be possible.

What is the prevention of antepartum hemorrhage?

The most effective strategy to prevent postpartum hemorrhage is active management of the third stage of labor (AMTSL). AMTSL also reduces the risk of a postpartum maternal hemoglobin level lower than 9 g per dL (90 g per L) and the need for manual removal of the placenta.

What is threatened abortion?

A threatened abortion is defined as vaginal bleeding before 20 weeks gestational age in the setting of a positive urine and/or blood pregnancy test with a closed cervical os, without passage of products of conception and without evidence of a fetal or embryonic demise.

What are the types of antepartum hemorrhage?

Antepartum haemorrhage

  • Cervical ectropion. The cells on the surface of the cervix often change in pregnancy and make the tissue more likely to bleed, particularly after sex.
  • Infection.
  • Placental edge bleed.
  • Placenta praevia.
  • Placental abruption.
  • Management.

What are the three signs of placental separation?


  • Vaginal bleeding, although there might not be any.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Back pain.
  • Uterine tenderness or rigidity.
  • Uterine contractions, often coming one right after another.

How is antepartum hemorrhage diagnosed?

Any vaginal bleeding at or after 24 weeks must be diagnosed as an antepartum haemorrhage if any of the following are present:

  1. A sanitary pad is at least partially soaked with blood.
  2. Blood runs down the patient’s legs.
  3. A clot of blood has been passed.

Does bed rest help placental abruption?

Why Is Bed Rest Prescribed? Some doctors suggest bed rest for conditions like growth problems in the baby, high blood pressure or preeclampsia, vaginal bleeding from placenta previa or abruption, preterm labor, cervical insufficiency, threatened miscarriage, and other problems.

When do you start bleeding from the antepartum?

Antepartum hemorrhage (Bleeding in late pregnancy) Antepartum haemorrhage (APH) is defined as bleeding from or in to the genital tract, occurring from 24+0 weeks of pregnancy and prior to the birth of the baby.

What are the symptoms of antepartum haemorrhage?

Symptoms of antepartum haemorrhage (APH) consist of vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy and before delivery. Along with vaginal bleeding other symptoms may be- (a) In APH due to placenta previa, vaginal bleeding is painless, or bleeding occurs after sexual intercourse. Initial episodes are usually mild and ceases spontaneously only to recur.

How to prevent antepartum hemorrhage in late pregnancy?

Routine antenatal checkups for early detection of any complication during pregnancy with their proper management such as high blood pressure / pre-eclampsia can help in reducing maternal and foetal complications. By preventing certain risk factors during pregnancy such as smoking, drug misuse the chances of APH can also be reduced.

What causes bleeding after a postpartum hemorrhage?

The most common cause of postpartum hemorrhage is when the uterus does not contract enough after delivery. Quickly finding and treating the cause of bleeding can often lead to a full recovery.