Why are skull radiographs commonly performed in horses?
The complex anatomy of the equine skull creates a radiographic challenge. However, radiographs are a commonly required tool in diagnosing dental and sinonasal disease, as well as other disorders of the equine skull. High quality, complete radiographic studies are essential for adequate evaluation.
What are the standard views to evaluate the temporomandibular joints?
Many different views such as the submentovertex, transmaxillary, and the transcranial are used to reduce superimposition. Ultrasound is a less expensive and easily performed imaging modality that can be used to evaluate the TMJ. This is simple way to look for the presence of a joint effusion.
What views are recommended to assess the tympanic bulla?
The rostrocaudal oblique projection should extend from mid mandible to C1. One of the TMJs and tympanic bulla should appear rostral to the other; the more rostral structures should be those on the recumbent side of the patient.
How many views are usually required for images of equine joints?
Radiographic views There are four standard views of the fetlock joint: Lateromedial.
Do horses have teeth?
Horses have a total of 12 premolar and 12 molar teeth divided into an upper and lower row each of 6 cheek teeth on both the left and right sides of the mouth.
What is Reverse Towne projection?
REVERSE-TOWNE PROJECTION. (OPEN-MOUTH) Image Receptor and Patient Placement The image receptor is placed in front of the patient, perpendicular to the midsagittal and parallel to the coronal plane. The patient’s head is tilted downward so that the canthomeatalline forms a 25- to 30-degree angle with the image receptor.
Does TMJ show up on brain MRI?
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent method for examining the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).
What is the tympanic bulla?
The tympanic bulla (Bulla tympanica) is placed medially to the styloid process. This rounded prominence belongs to the pars tympanica and in great part, in Cats, to the endotympanic part. It is hollow, pneumatised by diverticules of the ear drum forming the multiple cells generally separated by very thin bony septums.
What are lateral oblique radiographs used for?
The lateral oblique x-ray view of the mandible and maxilla taken on an extra-oral film is a frequently used method for giving a record of the teeth in the buccal segments from canine to third molar show- ing the teeth both erupted and unerupted or to assess the positions of unerupted third permanent molars.
How do you take an equine radiograph?
Radiographic Views The horse should be positioned with both hind limbs fully weight-bearing with the limb to be imaged slightly caudal to the contralateral limb (Figs. 1–4). The x-ray beam should be directed horizontally, cen- tered on the femorotibial joint, caudal and distal to the apex of the patella.
What is pedal osteitis?
Pedal Osteitis means inflammation of the distal phalanx (coffin bone). The distal phalanx or coffin bone is the main supporting bone in the foot of the horse. Pedal osteitis is a common condition or clinical sign but many times it is not the complete diagnosis.
Can you tell a horse’s gender by its teeth?
Horse’s teeth reveal their gender. You can tell the gender of a horse by looking at their teeth, but this expertise takes time and patience. To determine the gender of a horse from their teeth requires you to count their teeth. A mature male horse will have 40-42 permanent teeth, and mares have 36-40.
How are radiographs used to diagnose equine skull?
Obtaining diagnostic quality radiographs of the equine skull and interpreting the ﬁndings can be an intimidatingtask. Thevariationindegreeofatten- uation of x-rays by materials within the skull, from airinthesinusestoenamelinteeth,requiresﬁnesse with exposure technique.
How are radiographs used to interpret the skull?
Acquisition and interpretation of equine skull radiographs is notoriously difﬁcult. However, by dividing the skull into anatomic regions and considering the radiographic appearance of various pathologic changes that occur in these regions, the process of evaluation becomes simpler.
What are the structures of the equine head?
The large gas-filled structures of the equine head, such as the guttural pouches, larynx, pharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses, enable diagnostic-quality radiographs to be obtained with portable radiographic units. The main limitation of radiography is the superimposition of multiple complex structures.
How is radiography used to diagnose lameness in horses?
Lameness is one of the most important clinical abnormalities in horses – both in frequency and in economic impact. Radiography is often the first method of diagnostic imaging used in the evaluation of lameness. The majority of radiographs of the distal portions of equine limbs are obtained with portable x-ray units.