How do you use nodal analysis to solve a dependent source?

How do you use nodal analysis to solve a dependent source?


  1. Identify all nodes in the circuit. Call the number of nodes .
  2. Select a reference node.
  3. Assign a variable for each node whose voltage is unknown.
  4. If there are dependent sources in the circuit, write down equations that express their values in terms of other node voltages.

What is supernode analysis?

In circuit theory, a supernode is a theoretical construct that can be used to solve a circuit. This is done by viewing a voltage source on a wire as a point source voltage in relation to other point voltages located at various nodes in the circuit, relative to a ground node assigned a zero or negative charge.

Why are dependent sources used in circuit analysis?

Dependent sources are used to model transistors and the operational amplifier IC. The dependent source drives the output side of the circuit. Dependent sources are usually associated with components (or devices) requiring power to operate correctly.

How do you identify a supernode?

The supernode is indicated by the region enclosed by the dotted line. This is possible because, if the total current leaving Node2 is zero (0) and the total current leaving Node3 is zero (0), the the total current leaving the combination is zero.

Do dependent current sources have resistance?

Conversely, if the current through an ideal current source is determined by some other voltage or current in a circuit, it is called a dependent or controlled current source. Symbols for these sources are shown in Figure 2. The internal resistance of an ideal current source is infinite.

What is supernode and Supermesh analysis?

Supermeshes are used to do mesh analysis on circuits containing current sources. You make a supermesh for each pair of meshes where a current source lies on a branch shared by two meshes.

How can you tell supernode and Supermesh?

The problem arises when the current source (independent or dependent) exists between two meshes. So, then to solve the circuit a supermesh is created by excluding the current source and any elements connected in series with it. Nodal analysis and supernode: In nodal analysis we use KCL.

What are the 4 types of dependent sources?

There are four possible dependent sources: the voltage-controlled voltage source (VCVS), the current-controlled voltage source (CCVS), the voltage-controlled current source (VCCS), and the current-controlled current source (CCCS).

Can superposition be use for dependent sources?

In the context of superposition, dependent sources look more like resistors, which simply relate various branch currents and node voltages. Their equations have no nonzero independent source terms on the right-hand side of the equation, so they do not effect superposition.

Which method is best for voltage sources?

Which method is best for voltage sources? Explanation: Every voltage source connected to the reference node reduces the equations to be solved. Thus, the node-voltage method is best for voltage sources.

What are different dependent sources?

Why is nodal analysis used in supernode circuit analysis?

If we do the same i.e. apply the Nodal analysis instead on Supernode circuit analysis on the circuit in fig 1 (b), we face some difficulty at Node1 and Node2, because we don’t know that what is the current in the branch with the voltage source?

When do two nonreference nodes form a supernode?

Supernode in electric circuits The two nonreference nodes form supernode if the voltage source (dependent or independent) is connected between two nonreference nodes. As shown below in Figure 1, 1 V voltage source is connected between nodes 1 and 2, so node 1 and node 2 forms supernode. Procedure (steps) for applying Nodal Analysis: –

How to write the voltage of a supernode?

Node I and Node III are connected to each other by a voltage source. Therefore, they form a supernode. The voltage of Node III can be written in terms of the voltage of Node I. All we need to do is to apply KVL in the loop illustrated below. KVL: . A good practice is to avoid assigning a voltage label to Node III and use as its voltage.

How is a nodal analysis associated with a dependent source?

The following equation is associated with a voltage-controlled current source: $$I = (G_{M})(V_{CD})$$. A nodal analysis with a dependent source occurs when there are two DC voltage sources and a DC current source as shown in Figure 1. Note the value for E1 is expressed in terms of an unknown value.