What is oxidative degradation?

What is oxidative degradation?

Oxidative degradation involves the disintegration of macromolecules by the action of oxygen on the substrate (oxidation). Oxidative degradation can be initiated by three factors such as UV light, heat, or mechanical stress in the presence of oxygen atmosphere (Iannuzzi, Mattsson, & Rigdahl, 2013).

What is chemical degradation?

Chemical degradation is defined as a full depolymerization of polymer to the monomers, or partial depolymerization to oligomers and other chemical substances.

What causes light induced degradation?

The LID in crystalline silicon solar cells is caused by the reduction of photovoltaic efficiency at the initial stages of exposure to sunlight light. This is commonly referred to as “UV light-induced degradation” (UVID).

What is the need for photocatalytic degradation?

In other words, it is important for effective photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants that the reduction process of oxygen and the oxidation of pollutants proceed simultaneously to avoid the accumulation of electron in the conduction band and thus reduce the rate of recombination of eCB− and hVB+ [8, 9].

Why is TiO2 a photocatalyst?

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been widely used as a photocatalyst in many environmental and energy applications due to its efficient photoactivity, high stability, low cost, and safety to the environment and humans.

How can we prevent drug degradation?

Use of surfactant-based systems such as micelles can reduce the hydrolysis of hydrophobic drugs. Alternatively, preparing a suspension reduces the amount of drug in solution and hence may increase stability. A lyophilized product will remove water and significantly reduce the rate of hydrolysis.

What is the process of degradation?

Degradation is the process by which a chemical substance is broken down to smaller molecules by biotic means (biodegradability) or abiotic means (hydrolysis, photolysis or oxidisation). Half-lives (DT50) are used as measures of the stability and persistence of a chemical substance in the environment.

What are the examples of physical degradation?

Its form depends on the material in question, but generalised examples of the symptoms of degradation of materials include discoloration, swelling, loss of strength, changes in the properties of materials or signs of deterioration. Physical degradation may affect any material.

What is a degradation process?

What is light induced degradation solar panels?

Light-induced degradation (LID) refers to a loss in the silicon solar cell efficiency that is observed during excess carrier injection by above-bandgap illumination [1] or forward biasing [2].

What is LID effect?

LID (Light Induced Degradation) is a loss of performance observed with crystalline silicon modules, beginning in the very first hours of their exposure to the sun. Due to the light exposure effect, these positive-charged O2 dimers may diffuse across the silicon lattice and create complexes with boron dopant acceptors.