Which of the following are physiological outcomes of immobility?

Which of the following are physiological outcomes of immobility?

Physiologic outcomes of immobility include decreased metabolism, increased cardiac workload, decreased lung expansion, and increased oxygen demand.

How does immobility increase morbidity?

Immobility increases the risk of a DVT and a subsequent pulmonary embolus. The incidence of DVTs in the critically ill is between 13% and 30% and can lead to pulmonary embolism and death. In many areas of medicine, such as orthopedics, there is proven benefit from DVT prophylaxis.

Which is a systemic adaptation to immobility?

Which is a systemic adaptation to immobility? Demineralization of bone is a systemic response to immobility.

What are the effects of immobility on the nervous system?

Immobility affects the nervous control of many functions like voluntary control and blood pressure, resulting in poor coordination and imbalance. Immobility can also lead to various psychological problems such as social isolation, decreased self-esteem, and depression.

What are the hazards of immobility?

The hazards or complications of immobility, such as skin breakdown, pressure ulcers, contractures, muscular weakness, muscular atrophy, disuse osteoporosis, renal calculi, urinary stasis, urinary retention, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, atelectasis, pneumonia, decreased respiratory vital capacity.

What are the effects of immobility?

Immobility may lead to: Poor circulation: With a lack of movement, the body’s circulatory system automatically slows, causing blood to pool together instead of flowing freely. This puts added pressure and stress on the heart, which can result in blood clots (such as DVT’s) and less energy.

What are 2 complications of immobility?

Immobility is independently associated with the development of a series of complications, including pressure ulcer [1], deep vein thrombosis (DVT) [2], pneumonia [3], and urinary tract infection (UTI) [4].

What can cause immobility?

Immobility in old age may have physical, psychological and environmental causes. Immobile elderly people often suffer from a number of diseases which worsen their mobility. Arthritis, osteoporosis, hip fracture, stroke and Parkinson’s disease are among the most common causes of immobility in old age.

How can we prevent immobility?

Appropriate actions to prevent immobility and falls include increasing exercise and activity levels, improving the hospital environment, and decreasing the use of psychotropic medications. Bed alarms and increased supervision for high-risk patients also may help prevent falls.

How does immobility affect the heart?

The heart works more when the body is resting, probably because there is less resistance offered by the blood vessels and because there is a change in the distribution of blood in the immobile person. The result is that the heart rate, cardiac output, and stroke volume increase.

What is the most common complication of immobility?

Results. Among the 20,515 bedridden patients, 2,601(12.72%) patients experienced at least one of the major complications of immobility during hospitalization, including pressure ulcer (527, 2.57%), deep vein thrombosis (343, 1.67%), pneumonia (1647, 8.16%), and urinary tract infection (265, 1.29%).

How is immobility treated?

Some of the treatments include:

  1. Coaching and encouragement strategies.
  2. Goal setting.
  3. Passive range of movement.
  4. Active range of movement.
  5. Active assisted range of movement.
  6. Bed exercise.
  7. Manual handling training.

What are the side effects of chlorine exposure?

Burning of eyes, nose, mouth; lacrimation (discharge of tears), rhinorrhea (discharge of thin nasal mucus); cough, choking, substernal (occurring beneath the sternum) pain; nausea, vomiting; headache, dizziness; syncope; pulmonary edema; pneumonitis; hypoxemia (reduced O 2 in the blood); dermatitis; liquid: frostbite

What are the complications and hazards associated with immobility?

The complications and hazards associated with immobility and according to bodily system are described below: As the result of immobility, the urinary system can be adversely affected with urinary retention, urinary stasis, renal calculi, urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections.

What are the effects of immobility on the respiratory system?

Some adverse respiratory system effects relating to immobility include the thickening of respiratory secretions, the pooling of respiratory secretions and an increased inability of the client to mobilize and expectorate these secretions, all of which can lead to atelectasis, hypostatic pneumonia, and respiratory tract infections.

What are the metabolic system alterations associated with immobility?

The metabolic system alterations associated with immobility are a decreased rate of metabolism which can lead to unintended weight gain, a negative calcium balance secondary to the loss of calcium from the bones during immobilization, a negative nitrogen balance secondary to an increase in terms of catabolic protein breakdown, and anorexia.