How do you distinguish between hypovolemic and euvolemic hyponatremia?

How do you distinguish between hypovolemic and euvolemic hyponatremia?

Hypovolemic hyponatremia: decrease in total body water with greater decrease in total body sodium. Euvolemic hyponatremia: normal body sodium with increase in total body water. Hypervolemic hyponatremia: increase in total body sodium with greater increase in total body water.

What causes neonatal hyponatremia?

Etiology of Neonatal Hyponatremia The most frequent cause of neonatal hyponatremia is hypovolemic dehydration caused by vomiting, diarrhea, or both. When fluid loses are replaced with fluids that have little or no sodium (eg, some juices), hyponatremia can result.

How is hypervolemic hyponatremia diagnosed?

A trial of volume expansion with isotonic saline can be used to diagnose hypovolemic hyponatremia. Although a rise in SNa in response to isotonic saline would be consistent with hypovolemic hyponatremia, another possibility would be that the stimulus for vasopressin release in a patient with SIAD abated.

What does low sodium mean in newborns?

Infants with hyponatremia can present with neurologic symptoms such as vomiting, weakness, and seizures. Common causes of hyponatremia in the infant population are excess ingestion or administration of hypotonic fluids and excessive gastrointestinal salt loss.

What is normal sodium level?

A normal blood sodium level is between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Hyponatremia occurs when the sodium in your blood falls below 135 mEq/L. Many possible conditions and lifestyle factors can lead to hyponatremia, including: Certain medications.

What should a baby’s sodium level be?

The normal range for blood sodium levels is 135 to 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Do babies get sodium from breast milk?

Breast milk, infant formula, and milk were among the top food categories contributing to sodium intake among infants 6–11.9 months of age.

Why is it important to know about pustular eruptions in neonates?

The practical issue posed by pustular eruptions in neonates relates to the process of ruling out infections. It is important to be able to distinguish among the benign physiological rashes and the more clinically significant pathological pustular eruptions.

What are the symptoms of hyponatremia in children?

Children are at particularly high risk of developing symptomatic hyponatremia because of their larger brain/skull size ratio. 24 Symptoms of hyponatremia can be nonspecific, including fussiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, lethargy, and muscle cramps, making prompt diagnosis difficult.

Where are the pustules located in Neonatal acne?

Neonatal cephalic pustulosis (NCP) is a distinct subset of neonatal acne first described in 1991. NCP features fine papules and pustules but absence of comedones (Figure 3). Lesions may be sparse or densely distributed, and located primarily on the cheeks, brows and forehead, often extending into the scalp.

How can you tell if a neonate has pustules?

A neonate with multiple discrete tiny pustules on erythematous base, distributed over the trunk A smear of the central vesicle or pustule contents reveals numerous eosinophils on Wright stain preparations. No organisms can be seen or cultured.