What is a murine retrovirus?
Endogenous retroviruses are remnants of retroviral infections. In contrast to their human counterparts, murine endogenous retroviruses (mERV) still can synthesize infectious particles and retrotranspose. Xenotransplanted human cells have occasionally been described to be mERV infected.
What is ecotropic retrovirus?
Generally, a virus that will only replicate in its original host species. Most commonly refers to murine retroviruses, others of which infect only heterologous species (xenotropic viruses); a third category (amphotropic viruses) infect cells of both original and heterologous species.
What is a positive use for retroviruses?
This DNA can be incorporated into host genome as a provirus that can be passed on to progeny cells. The retrovirus DNA is inserted at random into the host genome. Because of this, it can be inserted into oncogenes. In this way some retroviruses can convert normal cells into cancer cells.
What is the purpose of retroviruses?
A retrovirus is a virus that uses RNA as its genetic material. When a retrovirus infects a cell, it makes a DNA copy of its genome that is inserted into the DNA of the host cell. There are a variety of different retroviruses that cause human diseases such as some forms of cancer and AIDS.
Is MLV a retrovirus?
MLV-based retroviral vectors are the most widely used gene delivery vehicles in clinical gene therapy protocols.
Is XMRV A retrovirus?
This supported the conclusion that XMRV was a retrovirus that was infecting human cells, and not likely a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) artifact (however, as it was later determined that the XMRV-infected human cells represented contamination with an infected human PC cell line,27,28 as will be discussed below).
Can I freeze retrovirus?
A: VSVG-pseudotyped retrovirus can be frozen, but it will degrade even at -80ºC. On average, each freeze/thaw cycle will result in a 2-4 fold decrease in titer. Amphotropic and ecotropic viruses are not able to handle a freeze/thaw cycle and should be used fresh.
What is an amphotropic virus?
[ ăm′fə-trŏp′ĭk, -trō′pĭk ] n. An oncornavirus that does not produce disease in its natural host, but does replicate in tissue culture cells of the host species and in cells from other species.
What are the symptoms of retrovirus?
Symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome are similar to the flu (such as headache, nausea, diarrhea, and body aches) and disappear on their own within weeks. Even though symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome may disappear, a person is still infected with HIV and can spread the infection.
Are retroviruses DNA viruses?
Retroviruses are single-stranded RNA animal viruses that employ a double-stranded DNA intermediate for replication. The RNA is copied into DNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The life cycle of a typical retrovirus is shown in Figure 13-18.