What is the structure of the West Nile virus?

What is the structure of the West Nile virus?

West Nile virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus), which includes other human pathogens such as dengue, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses [1, 2]. The virion consists of an envelope surrounding an icosahedral capsid of approximately 50 nm in size.

Which is an example of a vector of West Nile virus?

Culex mosquitoes are accepted as the primary global transmission vector; C. tarsalis is a main mosquito vector of WNV in the western United States and can feed on a variety of avian and mammalian species (95, 163).

Is West Nile virus RNA or DNA?

West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, a large family with 3 main genera (flavivirus, hepacivirus and pestivirus).

What is West Nile encephalitis an example of?

The most common causes of encephalitis are viral and bacterial infections, including viral infections transmitted by mosquitoes. West Nile virus infection is also called West Nile fever or West Nile encephalitis. The virus is a type of arbovirus (arbo comes from the term ARrthropod-BOrne, as many bugs are arthropods).

What does West Nile rash look like?

The rash of WNV is similar to many other viral rashes in that it can be nonspecific in nature. WNV rash typically consists of small pink spots – some raised and some flat – symmetrically distributed on the arms, legs, and trunk. It has been described as looking very much like roseola or measles.

How is the West Nile virus acquired?

West Nile virus is most commonly spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds. Infected mosquitoes then spread West Nile virus to people and other animals by biting them.

Does West Nile virus stay in your body?

Can people have persistent infection with West Nile virus? The findings of this study suggest that, in some people, West Nile virus may persist in the kidneys. There have been a few reports of persistent West Nile virus found in brain, spinal fluid, and blood of people who were immunocompromised.

How does West Nile virus affect mosquitoes?

West Nile virus transmission cycle When a mosquito bites an infected bird, the virus enters the mosquito’s bloodstream and eventually moves into its salivary glands. When an infected mosquito bites an animal or a human (host), the virus is passed into the host’s bloodstream, where it may cause serious illness.

What does West Nile virus feel like?

Symptoms of severe illness include high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, vision loss, numbness and paralysis.

How do you get West Nile encephalitis?

West Nile virus is spread to humans through the bite of an infected female mosquito. The mosquitoes get the virus when they bite an infected bird. Crows and jays are the most common birds linked to the virus. But at least 110 other bird species also have the virus.

How do you test for West Nile virus?

A diagnosis of West Nile virus can be confirmed using blood tests. Someone who is infected with West Nile virus will have an increased level of antibodies against the disease. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system that attack foreign substances such as viruses, bacteria and other harmful organisms.

What organs does the West Nile virus affect?

What is the West Nile virus?

  • Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
  • Meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord)
  • Meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the brain and its surrounding membrane)

General structure of West Nile virus. Like the prized peanut hidden in our M&M, tucked safely in the center of the virus is the core, which is called the nucleocapsid The nucleocapsid is made up of two parts. First is the protein shell, known as the capsid.

Which is an example of a Class 2 viral protein?

Contains a characteristic elongated β- sheet ectodomain structure that refolds to give a trimer of hairpins. Examples of class II viral fusion proteins include the dengue virus E protein, and the west nile virus E protein.

Is the West Nile virus endemic to South Africa?

Lineage 1 West Nile virus was detected in South Africa in 2010 in a mare and her aborted fetus; previously, only lineage 2 West Nile virus had been detected in horses and humans in South Africa. Kunjin virus is a subtype of West Nile virus endemic to Oceania.

Are there any ways to prevent the West Nile virus?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are taking precautions and various steps to control this virus. They are developing faster ways to detect and diagnose WNV in addition to developing and improving mosquito prevention and control programs [21]. 1. Colpitts, Tonya M. 2012.